Sapiens (Mindmap)


Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari (2015). From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.”





Personal Index:

Content Page
Humans were insignificant animals. jumbo brain requires pre-mature birth, need social tribe to raise a kid


Cognitive Revolution, 70k-30k yrs ago. Ability to transmit info about things that aren’t exist. Able to collaborate with mass amount of peer strangers, ruled the world


Gods, nations, corporations, money are imagined realities


Imagined reality resulted behavior pattern is called ‘cultures’, cultures alternations is called ‘history’. Cognitive Revolution is when history becomes independent from biology


Foragers, healthier, lived longer (exclude infancy mortality), had animistic belief


Homo sapiens drove massive extinction of large animals, before wheels. 3 waves of extinction: foragers -> farmers -> industralists


Agricultural Revolution, luxury trap, less happy, more people alive under worse conditions. Foragers were outnumbered and disappeared, regardless of their will


Domesticated animals, more miserable, but genetically successful. Discrepancy btw evolutionary success and individual suffering (both human and animals)


Imagined orders: humans are created equal, liberty, human right, Christianity, capitalism. Need forces to safeguard them because they’re virtual


Imagined order is embedded into material world, shapes our desires (today we’re in romantic consumerism, sells experiences), and is inter-subjective (no way out, need a new imagined order to change the current one)


Every imagined hierarchy disavows its fictional origins and claims to be natural and inevitable. From a biological view, nothing is unnatural


Most Americans are shocked if black is prohibited in white neighbourhoods, yet are fine with hierarchy of rich and poor. But the fact is that rich remains rich because they are born rich


Sex is a bio term, gender is a cultural term. History is moving towards unity


1st universal order: money, a system of mutual trust, can bridge any cultural gap. Ppl don’t know each other thus can cooperate effectively


2nd: imperial visions. Empire is defined: cultural diversity & flexible orders. Resulted in drastic reduction in human diversity. Now a global empire, state are fast losing independence


3rd: religion. Role is to give superhuman legitimacy to fragile social orders/structures that are imagined. Must be universal and missionary.


Polytheism, exalted god and human (from animals). Open-minded to addition of new gods, did not try to convert local believes


Christians are monotheistic, less tolerant. Slaughtered other Christians by millions to defend slightly diff interpretation of religion of love and compassion


Judaism is local monotheistic, not missionary. Christianity is missionary, one god leaves no space for other god, thus try to exterminate competition. Its model inspired Islam


Humans have a wonderful capacity to believe in contradictions: omnipotent God and independent Evil. This is called syncretism


Buddhism, belief in natural law, dhamma, rather than divine wills and whims. 99% didn’t attain nirvana, and pursue mundane achievements


Last 300yrs, age of secularism. New religion is humanism: liberal, socialist, evolutionary. Believe in human is superior, human rights, free will, listen to inner voice. Yet science said there’s no soul


History is ‘level two’ chaotic. Study history not to predict the future but to widen horizons. Dynamics of history aren’t directed towards enhancing human well-being


Scientific revolution: willing to admit ignorance, use observations and math, acquisition of new powers. Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism asserted everything important was already known


Take a scientific theory, declare it’s a final truth, in opposition to common scientific practices: Nazis and Communists. Leave science out of it and live in non-scientific truth: liberal humanism


Thought golden age was in the past. Science started to solve problems. But scientific research can flourish only in alliance with religion or ideology. The ideology justifies the costs of research


Science and imperialism marry well together, admit unknown, go explore. Chinese and Persians lacked the value, not tech. Today all humans are European in dress, thought and taste


Today, racism replaced by culturism. Previously science was used to prove Europeans are superior


Trust in the future creates credit, future is better than now. Previously, since pie was static, making tons of money was sinful, cuz someone else suffered. Credit is the diff btw today’s pie and tmr’s. The expectation of stagnation fulfills itself


Adam Smith: greed is good, egoism is altruism. Capitalist creed: profits be reinvested in new production. Medieval noblemen spent $, few reinvest. Now CEOs have little time for festivities


Capitalism becomes an ethic: econ growth is supreme good. Justice, freedom, happiness depend on econ growth. Banks and govs print money, hoping scientist will foot the bill


Mississippi Company used political clout to drive share price, finally bust, public lost faith in French banking system. Oversea French empire (in US specially) fell into British hands


Greek Rebellion Bond, hug btw politics and capital. Slave trade rose out of free economy. 20% of Congo population died because of rubber export demand


Collapse of family and community since 1750. Markets and states fostered imagined communities. Nationalism made us believe millions of strangers belong to same community. Consumerism made Madonna fans, vegeterians form community based on consumption habits


Global empire: nuclear threat fosters pacifism, fosters trade, increase profit of peace and cost of war


Happiness: family and community is important, but also depends on expectations. Media depletes contentment


Life has no meaning, purely an outcome of blind revolution. Any meaning is a delusion


Future: natural selection is being replaced by laws of intelligent design: bio engineering, cyborg engineering, or engineering of organic life. 60s will be the new 30, pension funds need change


The animal that will becomes a god, but does it increase happiness?



About taffytoffy

Stay hungry, stay stupid
This entry was posted in Books' Mind Map and tagged , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s