Sapiens (Mindmap)

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Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari (2015). From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.”

Mindmap

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Personal Index:

Content Page
Humans were insignificant animals. jumbo brain requires pre-mature birth, need social tribe to raise a kid

10

Cognitive Revolution, 70k-30k yrs ago. Ability to transmit info about things that aren’t exist. Able to collaborate with mass amount of peer strangers, ruled the world

25

Gods, nations, corporations, money are imagined realities

32

Imagined reality resulted behavior pattern is called ‘cultures’, cultures alternations is called ‘history’. Cognitive Revolution is when history becomes independent from biology

37

Foragers, healthier, lived longer (exclude infancy mortality), had animistic belief

54

Homo sapiens drove massive extinction of large animals, before wheels. 3 waves of extinction: foragers -> farmers -> industralists

74

Agricultural Revolution, luxury trap, less happy, more people alive under worse conditions. Foragers were outnumbered and disappeared, regardless of their will

79

Domesticated animals, more miserable, but genetically successful. Discrepancy btw evolutionary success and individual suffering (both human and animals)

93

Imagined orders: humans are created equal, liberty, human right, Christianity, capitalism. Need forces to safeguard them because they’re virtual

110

Imagined order is embedded into material world, shapes our desires (today we’re in romantic consumerism, sells experiences), and is inter-subjective (no way out, need a new imagined order to change the current one)

118

Every imagined hierarchy disavows its fictional origins and claims to be natural and inevitable. From a biological view, nothing is unnatural

134

Most Americans are shocked if black is prohibited in white neighbourhoods, yet are fine with hierarchy of rich and poor. But the fact is that rich remains rich because they are born rich

136

Sex is a bio term, gender is a cultural term. History is moving towards unity

172

1st universal order: money, a system of mutual trust, can bridge any cultural gap. Ppl don’t know each other thus can cooperate effectively

180

2nd: imperial visions. Empire is defined: cultural diversity & flexible orders. Resulted in drastic reduction in human diversity. Now a global empire, state are fast losing independence

207

3rd: religion. Role is to give superhuman legitimacy to fragile social orders/structures that are imagined. Must be universal and missionary.

210

Polytheism, exalted god and human (from animals). Open-minded to addition of new gods, did not try to convert local believes

215

Christians are monotheistic, less tolerant. Slaughtered other Christians by millions to defend slightly diff interpretation of religion of love and compassion

216

Judaism is local monotheistic, not missionary. Christianity is missionary, one god leaves no space for other god, thus try to exterminate competition. Its model inspired Islam

218

Humans have a wonderful capacity to believe in contradictions: omnipotent God and independent Evil. This is called syncretism

222

Buddhism, belief in natural law, dhamma, rather than divine wills and whims. 99% didn’t attain nirvana, and pursue mundane achievements

227

Last 300yrs, age of secularism. New religion is humanism: liberal, socialist, evolutionary. Believe in human is superior, human rights, free will, listen to inner voice. Yet science said there’s no soul

233

History is ‘level two’ chaotic. Study history not to predict the future but to widen horizons. Dynamics of history aren’t directed towards enhancing human well-being

241

Scientific revolution: willing to admit ignorance, use observations and math, acquisition of new powers. Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and Confucianism asserted everything important was already known

251

Take a scientific theory, declare it’s a final truth, in opposition to common scientific practices: Nazis and Communists. Leave science out of it and live in non-scientific truth: liberal humanism

253

Thought golden age was in the past. Science started to solve problems. But scientific research can flourish only in alliance with religion or ideology. The ideology justifies the costs of research

274

Science and imperialism marry well together, admit unknown, go explore. Chinese and Persians lacked the value, not tech. Today all humans are European in dress, thought and taste

280

Today, racism replaced by culturism. Previously science was used to prove Europeans are superior

302

Trust in the future creates credit, future is better than now. Previously, since pie was static, making tons of money was sinful, cuz someone else suffered. Credit is the diff btw today’s pie and tmr’s. The expectation of stagnation fulfills itself

308

Adam Smith: greed is good, egoism is altruism. Capitalist creed: profits be reinvested in new production. Medieval noblemen spent $, few reinvest. Now CEOs have little time for festivities

311

Capitalism becomes an ethic: econ growth is supreme good. Justice, freedom, happiness depend on econ growth. Banks and govs print money, hoping scientist will foot the bill

314

Mississippi Company used political clout to drive share price, finally bust, public lost faith in French banking system. Oversea French empire (in US specially) fell into British hands

324

Greek Rebellion Bond, hug btw politics and capital. Slave trade rose out of free economy. 20% of Congo population died because of rubber export demand

332

Collapse of family and community since 1750. Markets and states fostered imagined communities. Nationalism made us believe millions of strangers belong to same community. Consumerism made Madonna fans, vegeterians form community based on consumption habits

363

Global empire: nuclear threat fosters pacifism, fosters trade, increase profit of peace and cost of war

374

Happiness: family and community is important, but also depends on expectations. Media depletes contentment

384

Life has no meaning, purely an outcome of blind revolution. Any meaning is a delusion

391

Future: natural selection is being replaced by laws of intelligent design: bio engineering, cyborg engineering, or engineering of organic life. 60s will be the new 30, pension funds need change

399

The animal that will becomes a god, but does it increase happiness?

415

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About taffytoffy

Stay hungry, stay stupid
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